The Battle of Karbala was a battle that took place on the tenth of Muharram 61 AH (October 13, 680 AD). The day of battle is also known as Ashura. The battle took place between the small army of Hussain ibn Ali and the army of Yazid near a place called Karbala. The reason for Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah for the war was that Hussain ibn Ali did not pledge allegiance to him. The reason was that Hussain ibn Ali considered the government and Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah to be illegal, which had been inherited by Yazid I, contrary to the peace treaty of Hassan Mujtaba and Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan. Hussain cites Yazid as dangerous because of Islam, and considers him a wicked and lazy person who does not observe religious rites.
Hussain ibn Ali arrived in Karbala on the second day of Muharram, and on the third day of Umar ibn Sa’d encamped in Karbala with 4,000 men. On the seventh day of Muharram, water was blocked on Hussain ibn Ali and his companions, and on the ninth of Muharram, Shamar entered The Battle of Karbala with 4,000 men and a letter from Obaidullah ibn Ziad, in which he ordered Umar ibn Sa’d to fight and kill Hussain ibn Ali and If he cannot do this, he leaves the command to Shamar
On the tenth day of Muharram, the armies of Hussain ibn Ali and Umar ibn Sa’d faced each other. According to Abu Makhnaf, the number of Hussain’s army was 32 cavalry and 40 infantries. According to Mohammad Baqir, there were forty-five cavalry and one hundred infantries. In front of him was the army of Umar ibn Sa’d with about 30,000 men. The war broke out and Hussain and his allies were killed. After Hussain’s death, Omar ibn Sa’d’s army placed 72 of Hussain’s soldiers, as well as the head of his six-month-old son Ali Asghar, on spears.
Ali Asghar was dying of extreme thirst, and when Hussain asked the Shamar Corps for water, harmaleh attacked Ali Asghar with a three-pronged arrow. They also rode horses on dead bodies. The tents were looted and eventually set on fire, and finally the army of Umar ibn Sa’d left the bodies of those killed in The Battle of Karbala in the desert, and these bodies were buried three days later by the tribe of Bani Assad. After the Karbala incident, a number of women and children were taken prisoner and insulted by passing them through the bazaar and crowded places, and sent them to Sham, Capital of Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah.
From the Muslim point of view, those killed in the battle of Karbala are considered martyrs. After the battle, Hussain ibn Ali was nicknamed Sayyid al-Shuhada (the Lord of all martyrs).
Only half a century has passed since the death of the Holy Prophet that Hussain considers it his duty to rise up to rid Islam of the Umayyads and the Battle of Karbala occurs …. At the same time that Hussain was going to Karbala, many people warned Hussain to leave, even Some people said that Hussain was going to Karbala to gain power … Now we are trying to reach some conclusions by examining the situation at that time and different opinions …
worldly and Power-seeking view point
One of the important views of the Sunnis on the philosophy of the Ashura uprising is the secular conception of the Hussain movement. This perception is clearly evident from the very beginning of the movement in Hussain’s dealings with some of the elders and prominent people in Medina and Mecca. They believe that Hussain ibn Ali rose up to gain the presidency and the government. At the same time, Abdullah ibn Umar tried several times to dissuade Hussain from his goal with such a view. Abdullah Ibn Mati ‘also believes in this and asks Hussain to give up his decision. As he says in his meeting with Hussain:
“Swear to God, son of prophet, do not let the sanctity of Islam be violated! Preserve the sanctity of the Messenger of God and the sanctity of the Arabs! I swear by God, if you seek what is Umayyads have, they will kill you, and if they kill you, they will not be afraid of anyone else
Such an idea was not limited to the time of Hussain, but in the following centuries, some Sunni historians and thinkers, while confirming, accepting and promoting the mentioned thought, presented a superficial and secular interpretation of the motive of Aba Abdullah’s uprising and as a result presented a distorted and changed image of The Battle of Karbala movement.
As a result of such a view, which arises from human thoughts, this group believes that the Hussain movement was an ill-considered move in inappropriate circumstances.
Because Hussain did not pay as much attention as he should in assessing the power of the government and measuring his power and position. Therefore, they criticized Hussain’s action and considered it as a cause of division among Muslims and against the benefits of the Islamic community, and in this regard, some of them have gone so far as to consider Hussain’s move harmful for him and Islam and Muslims until Judgment Day.
This point of view was later mentioned by other Sunni scholars and elders, such as Qazi Abu Bakr ibn Arabi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Khaldun, Muhammad Tantawi, Abdul Wahab Najjar, Muhsuddin Khatib, etc. They said: “Hussain was deceived by people of Iraq or he thought his relation with prophet gave him such an social priority that could make him win. And some of they say that Hussain was deceived by his Shiites and shouldn’t have gone to karbala.
These were examples of the secularist view of some Sunni historians and thinkers on the philosophy of the Ashura uprising. This attitude can be criticized in several ways:
First: This group ignored the issue of the aggression of the Yazidi rulers and their forced allegiance to Hussain, and did not pay attention to the fact that the perpetrators of Yazid were honorable in killing him at every opportunity. Whether when Hussain was in Medina and due to non-acceptance of forced allegiance, they were forced to emigrate secretly from Medina at night, or when they were in Mecca, where they could not complete the acts of Aj due to the possibility of his assassination and left Mecca quickly or while leaving Mecca, they were persecuted by the armed forces of the government, or when the troops of Obaidullah ibn Ziad came under the command of Hurr to besiege and capture the Imam and prevent Hussain from moving to Kufa or returning to the Hijaz. And finally, despite Hussain’s ulterior motives, he was settled in a dry and homeless desert, and on the Day of Ashura, when everything he tried to prevent a military confrontation was in vain, and finally with that brutal attack on Hussain and Hussain’s family and companions, they created a terrible catastrophe.
Therefore, this group of Sunni historians and scholars, because they did not consider or did not want to consider the invasion of Yazidi rulers, made a mistake in understanding and analyzing the motive and nature of the Prophet’s uprising and could not or did not want to recognize that the main cause of this tragedy was Yazid’s Aggressive and extravagant government not Hussain Ibn Ali.
Second: From the point of view of these writers, the basis of Hussain ibn Ali’s uprising to seize power was to seize power and its defeat was because of three things:
-Wrong in evaluating the strength of the Kufis and the extent of their assistance
-Lack of attention to the depth of the Umayyads’ enmity with Bani Hashem.
-Neglecting military power and organizational power of Yazid Corps
It is clear that such an understanding of the Ashura movement is rooted in a worldly view of the Ashura uprising. With this in mind, the group has examined the historical statements about the movement and concluded that the circumstances were not conducive to Hussain’s uprising and has spoken out in protest, sometimes blaming the people of Kufa for making deceptive promises to Hussain. And they did not act on it, and they considered Hussain’s move wrong when, on the one hand, he trusted in the empty promises of the Kufis and, on the other hand, he ignored the high power and tremendous power of Yazid’s army.
Therefore, in the category of the Battle of Karbala movement, because they see little of Hussain’s material resources and forces and consider Hussain’s goal to be to gain power and government, they consider Hussain’s move to be ill-considered and hasty, and believe that if Hussain’s uprising was reasonable, he also had sufficient troops and material resources.
Unaware that Hussain was fully aware of the material and military power of the Umayyads, and had not forgotten the cruelty of the heart and the history of enmity of this family with the lineage of the Prophet, and the history of unfaithfulness of the people of Kufa remained in his memory. Just as Hussain not only did not reject the views and opinions of the elders and advisers, but sometimes even explicitly endorsed their views.
But Hussain preferred the benefits of the religion and the Islamic society to his worldly benefits and his responsibility to preserve the religion was very serious, so he could not ignore the religious and otherworldly benefits in order to protect his worldly benefits and those of his family and companions. That is why the Hussain movement was admired by everyone in this regard. Therefore, the worldview of the Ashura movement is inherently incompatible with Hussain’s thinking that the principle is to do one’s duty, even though one’s life is endangered in this way.
Third: If Hussain ibn Ali sought the presidency and government, he should have acted like other political leaders who used any means to defeat the enemy and even used any lies and tricks to advance their goals. As he seeks victory like many others, he must not give up any effort to gain strength and never speak of his own defeat and the apparent victory of the enemy, just as he must not speak of a terrible future awaiting him and scatter the army around him. And get out of a safe place that is respected by all and its destruction will cost the enemy dearly. While Hussain from the beginning to the end of the uprising in many of his sermons and speeches, speaks of martyrdom and considers the end of his work as martyrdom and captivity of the Ahl al-Bayt. Therefore, many people who accompanied Hussain with worldly motives, when they heard these words, dispersed from Hussain.
Hussain’s uprising has a lot to talk about, and books should be written for every thought of Hussain, and it is possible to meet with the Sunni brothers and reach a conclusion. Instead of slandering the family of Muhammad.