Abbas Ibn Ali, known as Abu al-Fadl, Qamar Bani Hashim, and Bab al-Hawaih (born 4 Sha’ban 26 AH, and died on the 10th of Muharram 61 AH) is the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Umm al-Banun and the younger brother of Hussain ibn Ali.
His fame and popularity among Muslims, especially Shiites, is mostly due to his courage as well as his loyalty to Hussain ibn Ali in the battle of Karbala. The tomb of Abu al-Fadl in Karbala is on the Ghazrieh road at the site of the battlefield of Karbala. Abu al-Fadl was killed on the tenth of Muharram (Ashura) in the event of Karbala while fetching water from the Euphrates River to quench the thirst of the Ahl al-Bayt, which was besieged by the army of Umar ibn Sa’d. Abbas’s heroic death in the battle of Karbala has created a legendary figure among Shiites and Sunnis who has made it very difficult to discover the historical truth.
Ali married Umm al-Banin ten years after the death of his wife Fatima. It is narrated that Ali asked his brother Aqeel to find him a wife who could give birth to brave and courageous children. So Fatemeh introduced Bint Hizam …
Fatemeh bint Hizam, Abbas’s mother, did not allow her to be called Fatimah because she was afraid that the memory of Fatimah’s sorrows would come alive for Ali and her children and cause them grief.
Fatemeh has been named Umm al-Banun (mother of sons) because she has four sons named Abbas, Aoun, Ja’far and Uthman. Umm al-Banin was alive twenty years after Imam Ali. But she was so loyal to him that she did not marry after the martyrdom of that Imam. Abu al-Fadl was born on the 4th of Sha’ban in the year 26 AH in the city of Medina. After Abu al-Fadl was born, Imam Ali hugged him and called him Abbas, and prayed to his ears. Then he kissed his arms and cried, and in response to Umm al-Banin, who asked him why he was crying, he said that Abbas’ two arms would be cut off in order to help his brother Hussain, and that God would give him two wings in the Hereafter in exchange for his severed hands.
Abbas’s most famous title is Abolfazl. Some believe that this title was given to them because they had a son named Fazl, but some of them say that because in the family of Bani Hashem, anyone named Abbas was called Abolfazl, even Abbas was called Abolfazl as a child.
he also is known as Abu al-Qasim (because he had a son named Qasim), Abu al-Qarbah (because he took the waterskin to the tent), and Abu al-Farjah (because the Shiites have recourse to him) Numerous titles have been mentioned for Abbas, such as Bab al-Hawaij, Qamar ibn Hashem, Saqqa, al-Shahid, etc.
Abu al-Fadl in 45 AH, at the age of twenty, married Lababa, the grandduaghter of Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib.
Lababa gave birth to two sons, Fazl and Obaidullah. Obaidullah, Abbas’s son, married Imam Sajjad’s daughter. Some sources name other children as Hussain, Qasim, Mohammad and a daughter for Abbas and say that Qasim and Muhammad were martyred on Ashura after their father.
Abu al-Fadl had a beautiful face and a strong body and tall stature, which is why he was called Qamar Bani Hashem. His feet were dragged on the ground when he was sitting on a horse.
Abu al-Fadl was not only special in stature, but also superior in intellect and human manifestations. Abu al-Fadl was a generous, brave and courageous person, and his good behavior was well-known among the people. He did not consider himself equal to his two older brothers, Hassan and Hussain, and always considered them his Imam. And he called them “Yabn Rasool O”, “Ya Sidi” and the like.
Abbas was fourteen years old when his father Ali was martyred in Ramadan in the year 40 AH. He never forgot what his father advised him on the night of the 21st of Ramadan on the eve of his martyrdom. Yes, his father asked him not to leave his brother Hussain alone on Ashura and in Karbala, and he, like his brothers, wielded a sword with Hussain at his father’s will, until he was martyred.
Abu al-Fadl was with his father Ali in the battle of Safin. One day during the battle of Safin, a masked teenager from Ali’s corps came to the fore. Fear and apprehension gripped Mu’awiyah’s army. Everyone is asking who else is this teenager who has so bravely stepped on the battlefield? No one from Mu’awiyah’s army dared to step on the field
It is said that Abu al-Fadl did a lot of brave things, and as a teenager he defeated several of Mu’awiyah’s troops. In this war, he was one of the people who, under the command of Malik Ashtar, attacked the Euphrates in the battle of Safin and brought water to Ali’s army.
Abu al-Fadl In Karbala
Abu al-Fadl was with his brother Hussain throughout his life and spent his life serving Hussain. On the eighth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, Abbas delivered a sermon on the roof of the Kaaba, in which he criticized the people’s allegiance to Yazid, referring to Hussain’s position and introducing Yazid as an alcoholic.
During the sermon, he stated that as long as he is alive, he will not allow anyone to martyr Imam Hussain, and the only way to martyr Hussain is to kill Abu al-Fadl.
On the 7th of Muharram, when Obaidullah ibn Ziad did not allow him to use the water of the Euphrates, Hussain summoned Abu al-Fadl to fill the mosques with water and take them to the camp. Abbas was able to break the enemy siege and deliver water to the camp.
In Karbala, two letters of protection were sent to Abu al-Fadl and his brothers. The first trust was brought by Abdullah ibn Abi al-Mahlaban Hizam al-Amiri, who was the nephew of Umm al-Banin, Abbas’s mother, Shamar Ibn Dhi Al-Jushn proposed the second letter to Abbas and his brothers at noon on Ashura and called them “cousins”, but received no answer.
. Abbas cursed him and his trust and said: “O enemy of God! “Death to you for calling us to obey disbelief and to leave my brother Hussain.”
Abbas’s brothers were martyred before him on the Day of Ashura. Jafar was martyred at the age of 29, Abdullah at the age of 25, and Uthman at the age of 21. After the martyrdom of all the companions and family of Bani Hashem, Abbas intended to bring water for the tents. He attacked the Euphrates Sharia and was able to reach the water from among the Sharia guards.
When Abbas entered the Euphrates, he filled his hands with water to drink, but when he approached it, he remembered Hussain’s thirst and let go of the water, and came out of the Euphrates with a thirsty lip and a waterskin full of water. On the way back, the enemy attacked him. He was fighting the enemy in the grove and was going to the tents when Zayd ibn Warqa Jahani jumped out from behind the palm and hit his right hand. Abbas took the sword in his left hand and continued to fight the enemy.
Hakim ibn Tufayl al-Ta’i, who was hiding behind a tree, struck him in the left hand, after which he struck him on the head and martyred him.
When Abu al-Fadl was martyred, Hussain came to his brother’s corpse, cried loudly and said: “I am destroyed and my solutions became limited.”
Burial place of Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas
Abbas’s burial ground is located in the city of Karbala, 378 meters northeast of the Hussain shrine, and is one of the most important Shiite shrines. The boundary between the shrine of Abbas and the shrine of Hussain is called Binat al-Harmain.