Imam Hussain's Shrine

Imam Hussain’s Shrine or Shrine of Imam Hussain, Hussain bin Ali in Iraq and the city of Karbala.

During the caliphate of Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah, Hussein fought against him.

Ashura day, on the 10th of Muharram in the year 61 AH (October 9, 680 AD) in the desert of Ninawa (present-day Karbala in Iraq), he was oppressed and killed by the army of Obaidullah ibn Zaid.

After a few days, Ali Akbar and Ali Asghar were buried on their chests.

Also, most of the dead in Karbala are buried a little further away.

On the northeast side of the shrine of Hussain bin Ali is the shrine of Abbas bin Ali.

Between the two shrines is called between the two shrines.

Geographical location

The shrine of Hussain bin Ali in the middle of Karbala, one hundred kilometers from Baghdad (the capital of Iraq). The geographical location of this city is 32 degrees and 40 minutes north latitude and 43 degrees and 50 minutes east longitude.

Tomb of the Martyrs of Karbala

The burial place of Hazrat Ali Akbar (AS) at the foot of Imam Hussain (AS) and the two lower sides of the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) belong to Ali Akbar and the martyrs of Bani Hashem.

This part is connected to the outer shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) and is 2.6 meters long and 1.4 meters wide.

The tomb of the martyrs of Bani Hashem is located next to the tomb of Ali Akbar and at the foot of Imam Hussain (AS).

According to narrations, it is narrated that when Bani Assad buried the martyrs, the bodies of the martyrs of Bani Hashem, which had been collected by Imam Hussain (AS) in a tent, were buried at the feet of that Imam and then a few meters lower.

Other martyrs of Karbala were buried. They buried.

All the martyrs of Karbala except Hazrat Abul-Fazl, Hurr ibn Yazid Riahi and Habib ibn Mazahir are buried next to the grave of Imam Hussain (AS).

Their graves are located a few meters southeast of the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS).

These tombs are inside a 12-meter chamber and contain an inlay box.

The names of about 120 martyrs of Karbala are engraved on a blue inscription along with a pilgrimage letter.

Imam Hussain's Shrine

Beneath the dome is a large, polygonal silver tomb which occupies most of the space of the dome and inside it is the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) and his two children Ali Asghar and Ali Akbar.

Shrines have been built and installed on the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) in different periods.

The shrine of this shrine was last replaced in 1391.

All the shrines of Imam Hussain (AS) have been made by Iranian artists in different periods.

The last shrine built for Imam was also built in Iran.

Made of 118 kg of gold with silver and teak wood, this shrine looks like an old shrine, but is slightly taller.

Its area is about 34 square meters and the number of windows is 20.

In addition, many of the shrine’s decorations, including mirror work, are the work of Iranian artists.

Unique feature of Imam Hussain's shrine

The unique feature of the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) is that the shrine is hexagonal, which according to various narrations, due to the presence of the tomb of  Ali Akabr, at the foot of him, the shrine is built in this way.

History of Imam Hussain's court

The first sign of the court of Imam Hussain (AS) was erected by the tribe of Bani Assad, who settled near Karbala.

They held a special ceremony to bury The Master of Martyrs (AS) and planted a cedar tree on his honorable grave.

Later, when Ma’mun decided to hand over the caliphate to Ali ibn Musa to satisfy the Shiites of Khorasan, the Shiites had the opportunity to build a tomb on the tomb of Hussain ibn Ali.

Since then, many repairs and decorations have been done in the tomb of Hussain bin Ali.

Enmity of the caliphs and destruction of the shrine

The destruction of the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) means the destruction of the shrine of Imam Hussain by the opponents of the Ahl al-Bayt.

Throughout history, the caliphs have always been dissatisfied with the existence of the shrine of Imam Hussain but people have always been satisfied with the existence of the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS).

At the beginning of the Abbasid rule, the ground was prepared for the pilgrims to visit the honorable tomb of Imam Hussain (AS) and this process continued until the time of Harun Al-Rasheed, The fifth Abbasid caliph who destroyed the noble tomb of Imam Hussain (AS) and all the surrounding houses in 193 AH.

Abbasid caliphs including Mansour, Harun Al-Rasheed and Mutawakel have destroyed the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) in different periods.

The most important and famous destruction took place by the order of Mutawakel.

Mutawakel Abbasi, who considered his love and affection for Hussain (AS) as the root of the love of the Ahl al-Bayt and could not bear to increase the number of pilgrims to the court of Imam Hussain (AS). He ordered the destruction of the honorable tomb of Imam Hussain (AS) and all the surrounding houses. And forbade the pilgrimage of Imam Hussain (AS).

In 1216 AH, the Wahhabis in Karbala and the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) were brutally attacked by a group of Wahhabis led by Saud bin Abdul Aziz.

On the day of Eid al-Ghadir, he laid siege to the city and slaughtered most of its inhabitants, both those who were in the bazaar and those who took refuge in their homes.

The last destruction occurred with the Ba’athist invasion during Saddam’s time.

The old building of the Imam Hussain's Shrine

The last reconstruction of the Imam Hussain’s shrine was completed in 371 AH by Az-Dawla Dailami Al-Buwayh.

He ordered the construction of all the shrines.

The construction of the shrine of Hussain ibn Ali began in 367 AH and ended in 371 AH.

This tomb has a dome above the tomb of Hussain bin Ali. Its main building remains.

The role of Iranian kings and Other Kingsin construction and development

The shrine of Hussain, which is one of the architectural masterpieces of the Al-Buwayh period.

After the rule of Al-Buwayh, Az-Dawla built an ivory shrine for the tomb of Imam Hussain (AS) in 379 AH.

With the construction of a new court for the martyrs, more bazaars and houses were built around it, and the city of Karbala was surrounded by large walls.

The city flourished during the time of Az-Dawla and became very famous religiously, socially, politically, economically and literary city.

The shrine of Imam Hussain (as), together with the shrine of Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas (as) and the spaces around these two places, form the central core of the city.

The holy shrine is more than two meters below the city level, so a large number of stairs lead the pilgrims through the gates into the courtyard.

The holy shrine consists of a large dome, which on the dome is a large house with several porches and a large mosque and a large courtyard that includes the entire complex.

Shah Ismail Safavid

When Shah Ismail Safavid conquered Baghdad in 914 AH, he personally went to Karbala to visit the tomb of Imam Hussain (AS) and ordered that a gold shrine be built for the tomb of Imam Hussain (AS).

He also presented 12 golden chandeliers to the honorable tomb of Imam Hussain (AS) and ordered the construction of a box of pure silver for the court.

The court of Imam Hussain’s is also decorated with very expensive carpets.

Shah Ismail Safavid spent the night in the shrine of Imam Hussain’s shrine and then went to visit the grave of Imam Ali (AS) in Najaf Ashraf.

Shah Abbas Safavid

Shah Abbas Safavid is one of the other Safavid kings who continued the actions of Shah Ismail in decorating the shrine.

He built a copper tomb on the holy tomb and covered it with precious silk curtains.

He renovated the dome of the shrine from the outside and decorated it with beautiful tiles from the inside.

He gave a lot of money to the servants of the shrine and installed a beautiful box on the holy grave that still remains.

Safi of Persia

While visiting the shrine, Shah Safi ordered the mosque to be expanded and a north porch built, which became known as the Shah’s porch.

Also, by his order, the courtyard wall was destroyed from the north and its area was expanded.

Shah Suleiman the Safavid

In 1048 AH, Shah Suleiman the Safavid expanded the mosque behind the courtyard from the north and built the north porch.

Razia Sultan Begum, the daughter of Shah Sultan Hussain, also donated money to repair and decorate the holy shrine.

Nader Shah Afshar

In 1135 AH, Nader Shah Afshar allocated a large budget for the renovation of the shrine of Imam Hussain (as) and himself visited Karbala and ordered that the existing buildings be decorated.

He gave precious gifts to the treasury of the shrine.

Ottoman Kings

The Ottoman kings also paid special attention to the tombs, despite their Sunni religion.

At that time, Karbala and other Iraqi cities were under the rule of the Ottoman kings, and the development of that city was the focus of their efforts.

After visiting the tomb of Imam Hussain (as), Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent ordered the restoration, whitewashing and plastering of the dome.

Later, Sultan Murad III of the Ottoman Empire commissioned Ali Pasha, the governor of Baghdad, to renovate Astana.

During the Qajar period

During the Qajar era, the dome of Imam Hussain (AS) was gilded 3 times.

Agham Mohammad Khan, the founder of Qajar in Iran, personally gilded the dome of Imam Hussain (AS) in 1207 AH.

Fath Ali Shah Qajar also gilded the dome of Imam Hussain (AS) for the second time because the gold of the dome had turned black.

New building of the Golden Porch and removal of the old porch roof

In 2009, stone columns were imported from Iran.

The old porch roof was removed and the columns installed.

This work lasted for two years, after which they started the new building of the Golden Porch.

In 1394 AH, a plan for the renovation and coordination of the Sharif courtyard was developed.

This plan included the reconstruction of the porch, the demolition of the western side of the courtyard and the decoration of the walls with tiles, which lasted until 2017.

Currently, the process of development and reconstruction of the shrine and the tomb of Sharif Hussaini has clarified the dimensions and angles of the shrine in this way.

The courtyard of the shrine of Imam Hussain (pbuh) includes a rectangular area, the north-south side of which is 125 meters from the outside and the east-west side is 95 meters.

This area includes all the buildings of the shrine and is located inside a courtyard with an area of 385 square meters.

The shrine and tomb are located in the middle of this courtyard, which is covered with expensive tiles. The height of the shrine is twelve meters, the length of the north and south sides is 55 meters and the length of the east and west sides is 445 meters. The edges of the walls of the shrine are decorated from the outside with verses from the Quran.

These decorations were made in the years 1363 to 1369 AH.

Karbala from the language of historians and artists

The great Arab historian Ibn Battuta describes his pilgrimage to Karbala in 726 AH or 1307 AD as follows:I went on a pilgrimage to Karbala during the reign of Sultan Saeed Bahador Khan bin Khodabandeh.

It was a small town surrounded by beautiful groves and the Euphrates River making it the most fertile soil.

This city was a very beautiful city that the holy court of Imam Hussain (AS) gave it another sanctity and reverence. No one would enter the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) unless he asked for leave from him. The court of this noble tomb was decorated with silver and its curtains were made of silk.

Jean-Leon Jerome

Jean-l Jerome(painter)

Jean-Leon Jerome also painted the tomb of Hussain bin Ali after visiting the shrine.

Pedro Teixeira

P.Teixeira historian

This is what Pedro Teixeira, historian who visited Karbala in 1604 AD and 1024 AH, describes: The city has 4,000 houses and its inhabitants are mostly Arabs as well as Iranians and Turks.

It has very large markets. There are special places in this city that distribute food to the pilgrims of this city for free. Shrine of Imam Hussain is one of the most important areas of Karbala and Muslims from different cities visit the tomb of Imam Hussain.

This Spanish historian also writes about the custodians of the shrine of Imam Hussain (AS) who gave people free water to earn divine rewards and They also revived the night of the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (AS) so that on these nights, due to the large number of pilgrims, tents were set up for them around the shrine.

imam Hussain's Shrine